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Revised and Updated Extracts from Sutton's Book

The following pages provide revised and updated extracts from Malcolm Sutton's book. The extracts include the introduction, the glossary, and the statistical summary from the appendix. The information contained in the original book (published 1994) has been updated and revised (October 2002) by Malcolm Sutton to provide a more accurate account of the deaths. It is important that anyone using the data first reads the following extracts.


cover of Sutton's book Malcolm Sutton (1994)
Bear in mind these dead ... An Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland 1969-1993
Belfast: Beyond the Pale Publications
ISBN 0-9514229-4-4
(Out of print)

Published by:

Beyond the Pale Publications [Publisher no longer exists]
Unit 2.1.2
Conway Mill
5-7 Conway Street
Belfast
BT13 2DE
Tel: +44 (0)28 9043 8630
Email: office@btpale.ie

This publication is copyright © Malcolm Sutton 1994, 1999, and 2001, and is included on the CAIN site by permission of the author. You may not edit, adapt, or redistribute changed versions of this for other than your personal use without express written permission. Redistribution for commercial purposes is not permitted.


From the back cover (revised version):

For almost twenty years Malcolm Sutton has been recording the details of every death arising from the present conflict in Ireland. He has collected newspaper cuttings, observed funerals, checked coroners' court records, visited cemetries and studied books and pamphlets. He has painstakingly verified the personal details of victims, the organisations responsible for the killings and the circumstances in which the deaths occurred.

Malcolm Sutton has compiled this index as a memorial for the dead and as a tribute to the families and friends of the 3,531 people killed between July 1969 and 31 December 2001.


Bear in mind these dead:
I can find no plainer words

John Hewitt, Neither an elegy nor a Manifesto


Contents

Introduction

v

Glossary

vii

Maps

x

Year by Year List of Deaths

1

Appendix: Statistical Summary

195

Index of Names

207


INTRODUCTION
by
Malcolm Sutton
(updated October 1999; further updated October 2002)

Since the mid-1980s, I have been compiling information on all deaths that can be attributed to the present conflict in Northern Ireland. When I began the research, I had no idea of the magnitude of the task. That I would eventually investigate all politically-motivated killings way back to 1969, as well as keep an up to date record of deaths to the present day, seemed improbable at the time. One of the first things I discovered was that the official figures for deaths from the conflict ignored killings which took place outside of Northern Ireland. I could see no logic to this and therefore became determined to cover all the killings no matter where they occurred.

I have carried out this research for two reasons. Firstly, it is a memorial to all the people who have been killed since 1969 and their deaths are recorded straightforwardly and with equal respect. Secondly, I wanted to produce as accurate a record as possible in order to enhance current understandings of the conflict, and as an archive for future historians.

The research is presented as factually as possible. The book gives the date of death of the victim, the name of the deceased, his or her age, their ‘status’ in relation to the conflict, which organisation killed them, and a brief description of the circumstances of their death. Although I have attempted to be objective regarding all these factors, inevitably elements of subjectivity creep in. For example, I have decided to exclude from this record certain types of incidents, such as accidental shootings and deaths due to heart attacks brought on by conflict-related incidents (eg a riot or kidknapping). Often I have had to make choices based on the weight of evidence and reports available and some of my decisions may cause offence but they are not intended to do so. There is a particular difficulty with bomb explosions, for example, because such incidents are often followed by arguments as to whether or not warnings were given, and if so, how long there was between the warning and the bomb exploding. Sometimes the precise location given in wamings has been wrong or disputed.

Virtually all the information contained in my research is in the public domain. Newspapers, periodicals and books consulted are listed in the bibliography. I have also had access to some inquest records, and I thank the Coroner for Greater Belfast, Mr. John Leckey and his staff, for giving me the opportunity to view these documents.

I would also like to thank BETWEEN in Cork, Ciarán de Baróid, Liz Law, Beyond the Pale Publishers, and Fiona Veitch for her wizardry with the typesetter. Without their kind help and support, my research would not have been published.

Finally, I have checked the details which follow as carefully as I can, but it is always possible that there are a few mistakes or wrong interpretations. I can only apologise in advance for these: anyone who finds an error is asked to contact me via the CAIN web site.

SOURCES

Books

Barzilay, David, The British Army in Ulster (4 Volumes), Century Books, Vol. 1, 1973, Vol. 2, 1975, Vol. 3, 1978, Vol.4, 1981.
Bradley, Anthony, Requiem for a Spy, Mercier Press, 1993.
Bruce, Steve, The Red Hand, Oxford University Press, 1992.
Coogan, Tim Pat, The IRA, Pall Mall Press, 1981.
Cusack, Jim. McDonald, Henry. UVF, Dublin: Poolbeg, 1997.
De Baróid, Ciarán, Ballymurphy and the Irish War, Aisling, 1989.
Deutsch, Richard and Magowan, Vivien, Northern Ireland 1968-1974. A Chronology of Events (3 Volumes), Blackstaff, 1973, 1974 and 1975.
Dillon, Martin, The Dirty War, Arrow Books, 1991.
Dillon, Martin and Lehane, Denis, Political Murder in Northern Ireland, Penguin, 1973.
Holland, J. McDonald, H. The INLA: Deadly Divisions, Dublin: Torc, 1994.
Holroyd, Fred, War Without Honour, Medium Publishers, 1989.
International Lawyers’ Inquiry, Shoot to Kill? Mercier, 1985.
Irish Information Partnership, Agenda, 1986.
Kelley, Kevin, The Longest War, Brandon, 1982.
McKeown, Michael, 2763, Murlough, 1989.
Murray, Raymond, The SAS in Ireland, Mercier, 1990.

Newspapers and Periodicals

An Phoblacht/Republican News
Andersonstown News
Armagh Guardian
Armagh Observer
Belfast Telegraph
Combat
Derry Journal
East Antrim Times
Fermanagh Herald
Hibernia (1970-1980)
Impartial Reporter
Irish Independent
Irish News
Irish Press
Irish Times
Lame Times
Londonderry Sentinel
Loyalist News
Lurgan Mail
Mid Ulster Mail
Newry Reporter
Newsletter
The Starry Plough
Tyrone Constitution
Tyrone Courier
Ulster
United Irishman (1970-1977)


GLOSSARY
by
Malcolm Sutton
(updated October 1999; further updated October 2002)

ATC Air Training Corps. Cadet unit of Royal Air Force.
APC Armoured Personnel Carrier.
BA British Army. Sent on to the streets of Northern Ireland during August 1969.
TA Territorial Army. A part-time reserve force of the British Army.
Civ Civilian.
CivPA A political activist.
Catholic Someone from the Catholic/Irish community in Northern Ireland.
Protestant Someone from the Protestant/British community in Northern Ireland.
nfNI Person killed in Northern Ireland who is not from Northern Ireland.
nfNIRI Not from Northern Ireland, killed in Republic of Ireland.
nfNIB Not from Northern Ireland, killed in Britain.
nfNIE Not from Northern Ireland, killed elsewhere in Europe.
CRF Catholic Reaction Force (see INLA).
DAAD Direct Action Against Drugs (see IRA).
GAA Gaelic Athletic Association.
Garda Garda Siochana. The Irish Republic's police force.
IIP Irish Independence Party. Rurally-based nationalist party in Northern Ireland founded in 1977. Now virtually moribund.
INLA Irish National Liberation Army. A breakaway group from OIRA, founded during the autumn of 1974. Reason for the break was dissatisfaction with OIRA's unilateral ceasefire which had come into effect during May 1972. Initially called themselves People's Liberation Army (PLA). They have also used nommes de guerre - Peoples Republican Army (PRA) and Catholic Reaction Force (CRF) - to claim some killings. They announced a ceasefire which came into effect on 22 August 1998.
IPLO Irish People's Liberation Organisation. A breakaway group from the INLA, founded in late 1986. Forced to disband by the IRA during November 1992.
IPLOBB Irish People's Liberation Organisation Belfast Brigade. A faction opposed to the IPLO leadership which emerged during August 1992. Forced to disband by the IRA during November 1992.
IRA Irish Republican Army (Oglaigh na hEireann). Originally an amalgamation of several military groups which came together in 1919 to fight for Irish independence from British rule. After the partition of Ireland in 1921, and the creation of Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State, support for the IRA gradually dwindled away. With the upheavals in Northern Ireland during 1969, the IRA rapidly reemerged. Within a few months, the movement had split into two factions, Official IRA (OIRA) and Provisional IRA (IRA). Both began a campaign of guerilla war against the Unionist/British state in Northern Ireland. During May 1972 the OIRA declared a unilateral ceasefire, although a small number of operations were carried out after this date. Today the OIRA is virtually moribund. The Provisional IRA carried on their campaign until August 1994, when they also declared a ceasefire. This ended during February 1996, but was re-instated on 20 July 1997. They have used nommes de guerre to claim some killings, particularly Republican Action Force (RepAF) during the mid-1970s, and Direct Action Against Drugs (DAAD), during their ceasefire 1994-96.
IRAF Fianna Eireann. Youth section of the IRA.
IRSP Irish Republican Socialist Party. Formed during December 1974, after breaking away from Official Sinn Fein. A political organisation allied to the INLA.
LAW Loyalist Association of Workers. A political group of loyalist workers which existed in the early 1970s. Allied to the UDA.
LOY Killing carried out by a non-specific loyalist group.
LRDG Loyalist Retaliation and Defence Group (see UDA).
LVF Loyalist Volunteer Force. A breakaway group from the UVF, founded during the summer of 1996. They were dissastified with the UVF ceasefire, which had come into effect under the auspices of the Combined Loyalist Military Command (CLMC) during October 1994. Also attracted some dissident members from the UDA. They also announced a ceasefire which came into effect on 15 May 1998.
NICRA Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association
OIRA Official Irish Republican Army (see IRA).
OIRAF Fianna Eireann. Youth section of OIRA.
PAF Protestant Action Force (see UVF).
PAG Protestant Action Group (see UVF).
PLA People's Liberation Army (see INLA).
PO Prison Officer.
PRA People's Republican Army (see INLA).
PUP Progressive Unionist Party. A political group allied to the UVF.
REP Killing carried out by a non-specific republican group.
RepAF Republican Action Force (see IRA).
Rep.Clubs Republican Clubs (see Workers Party).
RHC Red Hand Commando. A loyalist paramilitary group linked to the UVF.
RHD Red Hand Defenders. A nomme de guerre used by both Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) and Ulster Defence Association (UDA) to claim some killings from autum 1998.
RIR Royal Irish Regiment (see UDR).
rIRA Real Irish Republican Army. Formed during November 1997 by dissident members of the IRA who disagreed with the IRA leadership's ceasefire strategy. Following the Omagh car bomb explosion of August 1998, they also declared a ceasefire which came into effect on 7 September 1998.
RUC Royal Ulster Constabulary. Northern Ireland's police force.
SE Saor Éire. A splinter republican group formed during the early 1930s. Was briefly reactivated, particularly in the Irish Republic during 1969-71, but defunct since the mid-1970s.
SDLP Social Democratic and Labour Party. Moderate nationalist party in Northern Ireland founded in 1970, with the amalgamation of the Nationalist Party, National Democratic Party, and Republican Labour Party.
Sinn Féin Republican party founded in 1905. Politically allied to the IRA since 1919. Split in 1970 into Official Sinn Féin and Provisional Sinn Fein. Official Sinn Féin became Republican Clubs during the mid-1970s,and then the Workers Party in the early 1980s. Provisional Sinn Fein is the present-day Sinn Féin.
UDA Ulster Defence Association. Loyalist military group formed in 1971, with the amalgamation of several local loyalist defence groups. They have never claimed responsibility for any killings, probably to preserve their legal status, preferring to use a nomme de guerre, Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF). They also used another cover name, Loyalist Retaliation and Defence Group (LRDG) during the summer of 1991. The UDA was eventually made illegal by the British authorities during August 1992. Under the auspices of the Combined Loyalist Military Command (CLMC), they began a ceasefire on 13 October 1994.
UDP Ulster Democratic Party, formerly Ulster Loyalist Democratic Party. A political group allied to the UDA.
UDR Ulster Defence Regiment. Formed in April 1970, a regiment of the British Army (BA), generally recruited from the protestant/unionist community in Northern Ireland. The UDR was renamed Royal Irish Regiment (RIR) after being amalgamated with another British Army regiment - Royal Irish Rangers - in 1992. Served only in Northern Ireland.
UFF Ulster Freedom Fighters (see UDA).
Ulster Clubs A loyalist organisation which emerged during 1985. Its main concern became opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement which had been signed during November 1985, a few months after the group was formed. Defunct by the early 1990s.
UR Ulster Resistance. A loyalist group formed during November 1986, to oppose the Anglo-Irish Agreement, which had been signed a year earlier. Involved in a major importation of arms, which were distributed to both the UDA and UVF. Moribund by the mid 1990s.
USC Ulster Special Constabulary, or "B" Specials. A part-time militia founded in 1920. Organised by the Unionist Government at Stormont until the force was disbanded in April 1970, and replaced by the UDR.
UUP Ulster Unionist Party. The largest unionist party in Northern Ireland. Formed during the 1880s to oppose Home Rule in Ireland. After the partition of Ireland in 1921, it provided the government of Northern Ireland until March 1972, when direct rule from London was imposed.
UVF Ulster Volunteer Force. Originally an armed organisation founded in 1912 by Edward Carson to oppose Home Rule in Ireland. Became moribund after the partition of Ireland in 1921. A loyalist military group calling itself the UVF emerged in 1966, but was banned by the Unionist Government after a series of killings. The ban was lifted by the British authorities during April 1974, but re-imposed again in October 1975 after another series of killings. They have used nommes de guerre, Protestant Action Force (PAF) and Protestant Action Group (PAG), to claim some killings. Under the auspices of the Combined Loyalist Military Command (CLMC), they called a ceasefire on 13 October 1994.
VCP Vehicle checkpoint.
WP Workers Party. Descendent of Official Sinn Féin, known as Republican Clubs in the 1970s, and became Workers Party in 1982.

Note: No political connotation is intended by the use of the word Derry for Londonderry.


APPENDIX
Statistical Summary

by
Malcolm Sutton
(updated October 2002)

This index lists 3,531 deaths which are directly linked to the conflict in Northern Ireland, and which occurred between July 1969 and 31st December 2001. The discrepancy between this figure and the official British figure arises because of differences of interpretation in a small number of cases, and because Northern Ireland Office figures relate to deaths occurring in Northern Ireland only. The following types of death have been excluded from this index because they are not regarded as directly due to the conflict, or I have considered it inappropriate to include them.

  1. Accidental shootings of any individual, whether by a member of a military organisation or by a civilian. That is, the accidental discharge of a firearm with no intention to harm the victim.
  2. Persons killed during rows or fights between individual people, whether they are members of a military organisation or not.
  3. Persons killed during casual street violence, which is clearly not politically motivated.
  4. Persons dying of natural causes, for example heart attacks, brought on by an incident during the conflict.
  5. Suicides.
  6. Road accidents, whether they involve military vehicles, or are driven by persons involved in a military operation, unless there is evidence of a deliberate intention to run down the victim.
  7. Helicopter crashes and accidents.

Of the total deaths, 3,272 have occurred in Northern Ireland, 116 in the Irish Republic, 125 in Britain, and 18 elsewhere in Europe. Republican groups have been responsible for 2,058 of the deaths, Loyalist groups for 1,026, British Forces for 363, and the Irish Republic’s Forces for 5. For the remaining 79 deaths, it has not been possible or appropriate to identify the killing group. In the analysis that follows, the deaths caused by the perpetrators are further broken down by broad category of victim.


Annual Killings by Military and Paramilitary Groups (1969-2001)

Year

Republican

Loyalist

British

Others

Total

1969

3

3

10

0

16

1970

18

1

5

2

26

1971

98

21

45

7

171

1972

265

117

86

12

480

1973

133

86

32

4

255

1974

147

123

18

6

294

1975

125

123

8

4

260

1976

154

118

16

9

297

1977

75

26

8

1

110

1978

63

9

10

0

82

1979

102

17

2

0

121

1980

51

14

9

6

80

1981

71

12

18

13

114

1982

83

15

12

1

111

1983

61

9

12

2

84

1984

48

7

12

2

69

1985

48

4

5

0

57

1986

40

15

5

1

61

1987

71

15

10

2

98

1988

70

23

11

0

104

1989

54

18

4

0

76

1990

52

19

10

0

81

1991

50

40

6

1

97

1992

40

38

10

0

88

1993

38

49

0

1

88

1994

25

37

1

1

64

1995

7

2

0

0

9

1996

13

3

1

1

18

1997

5

16

1

0

22

1998

36

17

1

1

55

1999

4

3

0

1

8

2000

5

14

0

0

19

2001

3

12

0

1

16

Total

2,058

1,026

368*

79

3,531

Note: * Includes 5 killings by Irish Republics Forces


Killings by Military and Paramilitary Groups (1969-2001)

Republican Paramilitary Groups

Irish Republican Army (IRA) (includes 88 by non-specific Republican group since 1970)

1,823

Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) (includes 3 by non-specific Republican group during 1969)

56

Irish National Liberation Army (INLA)

123

Irish People’s Liberation Organisation (IPLO)

24

Saor Eire (SE)

3

Real Irish Republican Army (rIRA)

29

Total

2,058

Loyalist Paramilitary Groups

Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) (includes RHC, PAF, and PAG)

483

Ulster Defence Association (UDA) (includes UFF and LRDG)

262

Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF)

18

Red Hand Defenders (RHD)

8

Non-specific Loyalist group (LOY)

255

Total

1,026

British Forces

British Army (BA)

297

Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR)

8

Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

55

Ulster Special Constabulary (USC) ("B" Specials)

1

Royal Air Force (RAF)

1

British Police

1

Total

363

Irish Forces

Garda Síochána

4

Irish Army

1

Total

5

Others (Unable or impossible to identify killing group)

Total

79

Cumulative Total (1969 to 31 December 2001)

 

Total

3,531

Geographical Location of Killings (1969 - 2001)

Northern Ireland

3,272

Irish Republic

116

Britain

125

Elsewhere in Europe

18

Total

3,531


REPUBLICAN KILLINGS

Five paramilitary groups have carried out the Republican killings:

  1. Irish Republican Army (IRA) has killed 1,823. This total includes 88 killings marked as 'Republican' (or 'non-specific Republican group') in the text which occurred from 1970 onwards.
  2. Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) has killed 147. This figure includes its predecessor, People's Liberation army, and the breakaway faction, Irish People’s Liberation Organisation (IPLO).
  3. Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) has killed 56. This total includes 3 killings marked 'Republican' (or 'non-specific Republican group') in the text which occurred during 1969.
  4. Saor Eire has killed 3.
  5. Real Irish Republican Army (rIRA) has killed 29


IRA Killings (1,823)

British Forces

British Army (BA) in Northern Ireland *

417

British Army (BA) outside Northern Ireland **

50

Former British Army (xBA) members ***

5

Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (RIR)

190

Former Ulster Defence Regiment (xUDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (xRIR) members

38

 

Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

271

Former Royal Ulster Constabulary (xRUC) members

14

 

British Police ****

6

Prison Officers (PO)

20

Former Prison Officers (xPO)

2

Total British Forces Killed

1,013

Note:
* Includes 1 member of the Royal Navy (RN);
** Includes 4 members of the Royal Air Force (RAF);
*** Killed in Northern Ireland;
**** Killed in Britain

Alleged Informers

Total

59

Loyalist Paramilitary Personnel

Ulster Defence Association (UDA)

31

Former Ulster Defence Association (xUDA) members

1

Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)

12

Red Hand Commando (RHC) 1

Total

45

Unintended Targets

Civilians killed during attacks on British Forces, or who were mistaken for British Forces

Protestant civilians

73

Catholic civilians

51

Civilians not from Northern Ireland *

17

Civilians killed who were mistaken for Loyalist paramilitary personnel

Protestant civilians

3

Catholic civilians

1

Civilian killed who was mistaken for a contractor to British Forces

Catholic civilian

1

Civilians killed during attacks on the Northern Ireland Judiciary or who were mistaken for members of the Northern Ireland Judiciary

Protestant civilians

4

Catholic civilians

1

Civilian killed during an attack on a Unionist politician

Protestant civilian

1

Total

152

Note:
* Includes 7 civilians killed in Britain and 4 killed elsewhere in Europe.

Bomb attacks on commercial property

IRA personnel and civilians killed in premature bomb explosions, and civilians killed during bomb attacks on commercial property in Northern Ireland

Irish Republican Army (IRA) personnel *

103

Non-specific Republicans (REP)

2

Protestant civilians **

73

Catholic civilians **

32

Civilians not from Northern Ireland (nfNI)

2

Total

212

Note:
* Includes 4 IRA members killed in premature bomb explosions in Britain;
** Includes 1 Catholic and 5 Protestant civilians killed while attempting to stop bomb attack on their commercial property

Civilians working for British Forces

Civilians employed directly by the British Army (BA)

7

Contractors to British Army (BA) and Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) *

27

Total

34

Note:
* Includes 12 employees of contractors

Sectarian killings of Protestant civilians *

Total

130

Note:
* Deliberate killings of Protestant civilians. 88 of these killings occurred during the three years 1974-1976. The IRA used a nom de guerre - Republican Action Force (RepAF) - to claim responsibility for some of these killings during this period.

Civilians in Britain

Total

46

British 'VIPs'

Christopher Ewart-Biggs, British Ambassador to Ireland, and his secretary

2

Richard Sykes, British Ambassador to The Netherlands, and his valet

2

Lord Louis Mountbatten and his entourage

4

Bomb attack on British Conservative Party's Annual Conference

5

Ian Gow, Conservative MP

1

Lord Kaberry, ex-Conservative MP

1

Total

15

Unionist / Loyalist Politicians

Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) Members

4

Ulster Clubs (UC) Member

1

Loyalist Association of Workers (LAW) Member

1

Member of Ulster Resistance (UR)

1

Total

7

Feud with Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) (all prior to 1978)

Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) members

4

Members of Republican Clubs (now Workers' Party; WP)

3

Catholic civilians

4

Total

11

Irish Republic's Forces

Garda Síochána

6

Irish Army

1

Irish Prison Officer 1

Total

8

Northern Ireland Judiciary

Judges

3

Magistrates

4

Senior Director of Public Prosecutions Official

1

Total

8

Alleged criminals and drug dealers

Total

19

Others

Protestant civilians during street disturbances

7

Catholic civilian during street disturbances
1

Protestant civilians at Irish Republican Army (IRA) roadblocks

2

Catholic civilian at Irish Republican Army (IRA) roadblock

1

'Foreign' Businessmen (all early 1977)

3

Member of Irish People's Liberation Organisation Belfast Brigade (IPLOBB) *

1

Applicant to Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

1

Witness to an Irish Republican Army (IRA) operation

1

Civilians killed during armed robberies

4

Civilian instructor employed by Northern Ireland Prison Service

1

Civilian census collector

1

Fine Gael (FG) Senator **

1

Irish Republican Army (IRA) member in dispute

1

Former Irish Republican Army (xIRA) members in dispute

2

Irish Republican Army (IRA) member shot 'in error'

1

Member of real Irish Republican Army (rIRA)

1

Total

29

Note:
* A splinter group from the Irish People's Liberation Organisation (IPLO), killed during the enforced disbandment of these two groups by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during the autumn of 1992;
** Billy Fox, Fine Gael (FG) Senator, was shot during a confrontation with an Irish Republican Army (IRA) unit near to the home of a friend, Clones, County Monaghan, during March 1974.

Reason Not Known

IRA member 1

Protestant civilians

4

Catholic civilians

29

Civilian not from Northern Ireland *

1

Total

35

Note:
* Dutch seaman killed 12 November 1971.


INLA Killings (147)
(Includes 24 killings by IPLO between November 1986 and October 1992)

British Forces

British Army (BA) in Northern Ireland

18

British Army (BA) outside Northern Ireland

1

Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (RIR)

7

Former Ulster Defence Regiment (xUDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (xRIR) members

1

Royal Navy Reservist

1

 

Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

14

Former Royal Ulster Constabulary (xRUC) members

4

 

Prison Officers

2

Total

48

Alleged Informers

Total

6

Loyalist Paramilitary Personnel

Ulster Defence Association (UDA)

4

Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)

3

Former Ulster Volunteer Force (xUVF) members

2

Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF)

1

Red Hand Commando (RHC) 1

Total

11

Unionist / Loyalist Politicians

Total

2

Note:
* John McKeague killed 29 January 1982 and George Seawright killed 3 December 1987.

Unintended Targets

Civilians killed during attacks on British Forces, or who were mistaken for British Forces

Protestant civilians

9

Catholic civilians

7

Civilian not from Northern Ireland

1

Civilians killed during attacks on Loyalist paramilitary personnel, or who were mistaken for Loyalist paramilitary personnel

Protestant civilians

1

Total

18

Sectarian killings of Protestant civilians

Total *

20

Note:
* Deliberate killings of Protestant civilians. The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) have used nommes de guerre, such as People's Republican Army (PRA) and Catholic Reaction Force (CRF) to claim responsibility for some of these killings.

Feuds

With Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) (1975 and 1982) - OIRA members

4

Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) / Irish People's Liberation Organisation (IPLO) feud*

12

Irish People's Liberation Organisation (IPLO) / IPLO Belfast Brigade (IPLOBB) **

3

Internal Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) feud ***

6

Total

25

Note:
* Between December 1986 and March 1987;
** During August and September 1992;
*** Between January and September 1996.

Irish Republic's Forces

Garda Síochána

2

Total

2

Alleged criminals

Total

2

Others

Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) member in premature bomb explosion

1

Civilian during armed robbery

1

Former Irish National Liberation Army (xINLA) member in dispute

1

Magistrate

1

Protestant civilian employed by Northern Ireland prison service

1

British politician*

1

Total

6

Note:
* Airey Neave, Conservative MP, killed 30 march 1979.

Reason Not Known

Catholic civilians

4

ex-INLA Member

1

Civilian not from Northern Ireland

2

Total

7


Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) Killings (56)

British Forces

British Army (BA) in Northern Ireland

13

British Army (BA) outside Northern Ireland
1

Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (RIR)

1

Former Ulster Defence Regiment (xUDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (xRIR) members

1

Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

3

Total

19

Loyalist Paramilitary Personnel

Ulster Defence Association (UDA)

1

Total

1

Unintended Targets

Civilians killed during attacks on British Forces

Catholic civilians

3

Civilians not from Northern Ireland *

6

Total

9

Note:
* Killed during bomb attack on British Army base, Aldershot, England, on 22 February 1972.

Premature Bomb Explosions

Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) members (one in Irish Republic)

3

Total

3

Feuds

With Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) (1975 and 1977) - INLA members

2

Members of Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP)

2

With Irish Republican Army (IRA) (1971, 1975, and 1977) - IRA members

3

Member of Sinn Féin (SF)

1

Catholic civilians

4

With Saor Eire (SE) (1975) - SE member

1

Total

13

Others

Protestant civilians during street disturbances *

3

Sectarian killing of protestant civilian

1

Civilian during armed robbery

1

Civilian during punishment attack

1

Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) Senator **

1

Total

7

Note:
* During August and September 1969;
** John Barnhill, Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) Stormont Senator, killed 12 December 1971.

Unknown

Former Official Irish Republican Army (xOIRA) members

2

Catholic civilian

1

Civilian in Irish Republic

1

Total

4


Saor Eire (SE) Killings (3)

1 member of Garda Siochana, and 2 members of Saor Eire (1 killed in a premature bomb explosion and 1 killed during an internal Saor Eire dispute). All 3 killings occurred in the Irish Republic.


Real Irish Republican Army (rIRA) Killings (29)

Real Irish Republican Army (rIRA) Killings

All killed during car bomb explosion in Omagh, County Tyrone on 15 August 1998.

Catholic civilians

13

Protestant civilians

11

Civilians not from Northern Ireland

5

Total

29


LOYALIST KILLINGS

Four paramilitary groups have carried out the Loyalist killinqs:

  1. Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) has killed 483. It has also used nommes de guerre, Protestant Action Force (PAF), and Protestant Action Group (PAG) to claim responsibility for some killings. Included in this figure are 13 killings carried out by its offshoot, Red Hand Commando (RHC).
  2. Ulster Defence Association (UDA) has killed 262. This figure includes 2 killinqs claimed by the Loyalist Retaliation and Defence Group (LRDG) during 1991. The UDA has never claimed responsibility for any killing, preferring to use a nom de guerre, Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF).
  3. Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) has killed 18.
  4. Red Hand Defenders (RHD) has killed 8.

In many instances, Loyalist military groups have never claimed responsibility for their killings, therefore it is virtually impossible to ascertain in every case which loyalist group carried out a particular killing. There are 255 killings in the non-specific loyalist group category marked 'Loyalist' (or non-specific Loyalist group; 'LOY') in the text. Hence all loyalist killings have been grouped together in the tables below.

Loyalist Killings (1,026)

Republican Paramilitary Personnel

Irish Republican Army (IRA) members

19

Former members of the Irish Republican Army (xIRA)

10

Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) members

4

Former members of Irish National Liberation Army (xINLA)

1

Irish People's Liberation Organisation (IPLO) members

2

Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) members

5

Total

41

Nationalist / Republican Politicians

Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) members

5

Sinn Fein (SF) members *

14

Workers Party (WP) member

1

Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP) members

3

Irish Independence Party (IIP) member

1

Independent Nationalist Councillors

2

Nationalist Lawyers

2

Ex-internees

3

Total

31

Note:
* Includes one former member of Sinn Fein (SF).

British Forces

British Army (BA) in Northern Ireland

1

Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (RIR)

3

   

Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

8

   

Prison Officers (PO)

2

Total *

14

Note:
* Of the total 3 were killed during attacks on Catholic civilians, Catholic owned property or were mistaken for a Catholic, 1 was a Catholic member of the UDR, and 1 was killed during a bomb attack on a garage that had remained open during a Loyalist strike. Only 9 of the killings of British forces have been deliberate (6 RUC members, 1 British Army member and 2 prison officers).

Alleged Informers

Total

16

Sectarian Killings of Catholic civilians *

Total

717

Note:
* Deliberate killing of Catholic civilians. Includes 63 Protestant civilians, and 9 civilians not from Northern Ireland (3 from Britain, 5 from Irish Republic, and 1 from India) killed because they were mistaken for Catholic civilians, or associated with Catholic civilians.

Unintended Targests

Catholic civilians killed during attacks on Republican paramilitary personnel

6

Catholic civilians killed during attacks on Nationalist / Republican politicians

8

Protestant civilian killed during attack on British Forces

1

Protestant civilian killed during attack on an alleged informer

1

Total

16

Premature Bomb Explosions

Ulster Defence Association (UDA) members

8

Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) members

15

Non-specific Loyalist group members

2

Catholic civilian

1

Total

26

Civilians in the Irish Republic

Total

46

Loyalist Feuds
(Includes UDA/UVF feud 1974-1977, Intra loyalist feud 2000-2001, and internal UDA and UVF disputes)

Ulster Defence Association (UDA) members killed

26

Former Ulster Defence Association (xUDA) members killed

3

Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) members killed

21

Former Ulster Volunteer Force (xUVF) members killed

1

Red Hand Commando (RHC) members killed
2
Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) member killed
1
Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) members

2

Protestant civilian

2

Total

58

Others

Civilians during armed robberies

9

Civilians during punishment attacks

4

Civilians working during Loyalist strike *

2

Catholic journalist **

1

Precise reason for killing not known

45

Total

61

Note:
* A fireman and a bus driver
** Martin O'Hagan killed 28 September 2001


BRITISH FORCES KILLINGS (363)

British Forces have killed a total of 363. This figure includes 8 killings carried out by off duty personnel. The British Army (BA) has killed 297, and a further 8 killings have been carried out by the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (RIR). 55 killings have been carried out by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), and 1 killing carried out by the British Police in Britain. The Ulster Special Constabulary (USC) or "B" Specials, have killed 1 person, and the Royal Air Force (RAF) has also killed 1 person. All British Forces killings have been grouped together in the tables below.

Republican Paramilitary Personnel

Irish Republican Army (IRA) members

124

Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) members

11

Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) members

10

Irish People's Liberation Organisation (IPLO) member

1

Total

146

Loyalist Paramilitary Personnel

Ulster Defence Association (UDA) members

10

Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) members

8

Total

18

Civilians

Shot while in immediate vicinity of gun battle with Republican paramilitary forces

13

Killed while in immediate vicinity of street disturbances

26

Killed by special undercover units because mistaken for Republican paramilitary forces

7

Killed during altercation with British Forces patrol

10

Killed by rubber or plastic bullet *

16

Shot while engaged in criminal activity **

30

No obvious pattern of circumstances and/or reason for killing unknown

84

Total

186

Note:
* Excludes one IRA member who is included in Republican Paramilitary Personnel killed by British Forces;
** Of these, 15 were involved in robberies and15 were travelling in stolen cars.

Other British Forces

Off duty British Forces (assumed to have been Republicans or civilians)

5

On duty British Forces, shot in error, (mistaken for Republican Paramilitary Personnel)

4

Undercover British Forces, shot in error, during covert military operation

3

British soldier on leave, shot during street disturbances

1

Total

13


IRISH REPUBLIC'S FORCES (5)

The Irish Republic’s armed forces have killed 2 members of the IRA, 1 during an attempted escape from a prison (1975), and 1 during an armed robbery (1988). They have killed 2 members of the INLA, 1 during a gun battle (1987), and 1 also during an armed robbery (1997). They have also killed 1 member of the rIRA, again during an armed robbery (1998).


OTHERS (79)

A further 79 people have been killed. This figure includes 12 Republican prisoners who have died while on hunger strike, 2 in Britain in 1974 and 1976, and 10 in Northern Ireland during 1981. It is impossible to attribute a killing to any particular military group in 24 cases, were the death occurred during street disturbances, or a political/military incident. This leaves 43 killings for which it is not possible with the information available to identify the responsible group.


Questions regarding these pages should be sent to the CAIN Director (m.melaugh@ulster.ac.uk)
© Malcolm Sutton

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